STUDY ABOUT ARLINDO PHENOMENON AT SERAM SEA AND THE CORRELATION WITH GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE (La Niña and El Niño)

1) Rama Wijaya, 2)Firman Setiawan, dan 3)Shifa Dini Fitriani
Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Padjadjaran
Telp (022). 87701519; Fax. (022) 87701519
Email :
1) rm_wijaya@yahoo.com; 2) pmanandthemarine@yahoo.com; 3) shifadini@yahoo.com

ABSTRAK

Fenomena Arlindo menjadi salah satu ciri khas sistem arus di Indonesia. Sistem arus ini mengalir dari Samudera Pasifik menuju Samudera Hindia melalui perairan Indonesia. Keberadaan dan transpor massa air Arlindo yang melewati perairan Indonesia telah dideteksi melalui penelitian yang dilakukan di beberapa wilayah yang menjadi jalur lintasan arus. Dari penelitian yang telah dilakukan didapatkan nilai transpor berkisar 1 – 22 sv (1 sv = 1 sverdrup = 106 m3/det). Nilai transpor massa air ini berbeda-beda tiap lintasan dan bervariasi terhadap musim. Penelitian-penelitian ini banyak terkonsentrasi di lintasan-lintasan utama seperti Selat Makassar, Selat Lombok, Selat Ombai, dan Laut Banda. Dalam karya tulis ini disertakan penelitian mengenai fenomena Arlindo di lintasan timur wilayah Indonesia tepatnya di Laut Seram sebagai penelitian awal melacak keberadaan sistem arus ini dalam upaya nyata berkontribusi dalam bagian sistem pemantauan laut global karena Arlindo merupakan salah satu bagian terpenting dalam sirkulasi samudra dunia dalam penghantaran bahang (heat). Massa air yang terangkut oleh Arlindo dipengaruhi oleh adanya El Nino dan La Nina. Dampak El Nino dan La Nina terhadap kondisi oseanografi di Indonesia masih dalam kajian para ahli. Terdapat beberapa kenyataan yang menunjukkan terjadinya pemutihan karang (coral bleaching) yang terkait dengan El Nino, sehingga diperlukan kajian yang lebih mendalam tentang kondisi oseanografi Indonesia khususnya Arlindo. Kajian yang dilakukan didasarkan pada pengukuran sebaran suhu dan salinitas di laut. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan telah terdeteksi massa air SPSW (South Pacific Subtropical Water) dengan ciri salinitas maksimum di lapisan termoklin sebesar 35.38 psu, dan massa air SPIW (South Pacific Intermediate Water) dengan ciri salinitas minimum di lapisan dalam sebesar 34.32 psu. Sedangkan nilai pendekatan transpor massa air berkisar antara 2.12 – 3.24 Sv dan nilai kecepatan arus berkisar 2-3 m/det di kedalaman 0-100 m.
Kata Kunci : El Nino,La Nina, transpor massa air, dan Arlindo

Abstract

Arlindo phenomenon became one of the characteristics of the current system in Indonesia. Current system that flows from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean through Indonesian waters. The existence of mass transport and Arlindo water that passes through Indonesian waters have been detected through the research conducted in several areas that became the current paths. From the research that has been done obtained values ​​around 1-22 sv water mass transport (1 sv = 1 sverdrup = 106 m3/sec). This water mass transport value depend on variety of  the pathways and with the seasons. These studies focus on the main path, such as Makassar Strait, Lombok Strait, Ombai Strait, and Banda Sea. In this paper included studies phenomena Arlindo at East Indonesian region in Seram sea for early research to track the current system in real efforts to contribute to the global ocean monitoring system, Arlindo was one of the most important part of the world ocean circulation in the delivery of heat. Water transported via Arlindo affects the existence of El Nino and La Nina. Impact of El Nino and La Nina on the oceanographic conditions in Indonesia are still in research. There are several facts that indicate the presence of coral bleaching associated with El Nino, which requires a further study of the oceanographic conditions in Indonesia, especially Arlindo. This study is based on the measurement of the distribution temperature and salinity in the sea. Based on the analysis has detected the mass of water (South Pacific subtropical water) SPSW with a maximum values salinity in the termocline layer indicate 35.38 psu, and the mass of water SPIW (Pacific South water Intermedia) with a minimum of characteristic salinity in deep layer of 34.32 psu. While the value obtained from indirect calculation mass transport of water is 2.12 – 3.24 Sv and the range of current speed 3.2 m / sec at depths of 0-100 m.

Keywords : El Nino, La Nina, water mass transport, and Arlindo

 KAJIAN FENOMENA ARLINDO DI LAUT SERAM DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN PERUBAHAN IKLIM GLOBAL

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